1.5. Indicator Identification Element

The Indicator Identification element describes a socio-economic indicator used in the dataset, stored in the ESPON Database and characterized by a value of a supported data type.

It can be considered as the most important element of the metadata, because the goal of the ESPON Database is to store values of different socio-economic indicators. A dataset cannot be considered as such if there are no indicators specified in it and not described by the metadata.

The Indicator Identification element contains two links that establish a relationship between the data and the metadata part of a dataset. The Code property maps to the columns where the values of this indicator are stored. The Temporal Extent property maps to the time periods covered by the values of the indicator (the same indicator may exist for more than one time period in a dataset). That is why each unique indicator code present in the dataset must be described as a metadata Indicator Identification element. Each time period of the indicator value validity must be referenced by the indicator metadata. Any couple of indicator Code + Temporal Extent must correspond to only one column of values in the data part of the dataset.

Before creating metadata for an indicator, data providers should check the existing documentation, in order to see if the indicator already exists in the ESPON indicators classification. In this case, the data provider should use the existing indicator code, since the name and the abstract will be shared in the metadata. If the indicator does not exist in the ESPON documentation, the data provider must specify these properties; that will allow to add the new indicator to the classification.

Table 1.40. Indicator Identification

ESPON MetadataNameIndicator Identification
Name literalIndicatorIdentification
ParentDataset Information
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1... *
DescriptionDescribes a socio-economic indicator present in the dataset.
Data typeThis is a composite element
Example(s)-
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.1. Two Levels of Indicators Representation

The indicators in the ESPON Database may be represented in two ways, depending on the semantics and the links between the indicators included in the dataset.

Any indicator may be represented separately, as a singular structure having its own content and values. This is the most frequent way of the representation. For example, "Gross Domestic Product per Capita" and "Income per Household, Average" are indicators, each of them may form a complete dataset, if they are associated with value.

But there may also exist groups of indicators that form a semantic unity and that usually come together when providers produce data. This may concern indicators like "Population By Age" (where each age group 0-4 y.o., 5-9 y.o., 10-14 y.o., 15-19 y.o., 20-24 y.o., 25-29 y.o. etc is an indicator, but they all together represent an age pyramid) or "Employment By Sector" (with the indicators "Employment in Industry", "Employment in Services" etc). The indicators in the group are considered as autonomous indicators, but their group also has a semantic role, characterized by some of the attributes of a singular indicator (code, name, abstract). Moreover, in most cases the singular indicators composing a group share a number of properties (units of measure, methodology etc).

Such groups of linked indicators are called Indicators Aggregations. They are represented as a particular case of indicators in the Database.

So, the representation of indicators in the Database is made on two levels. The upper level is shared between Indicators Aggregations and Indicators Idedntifications and describe three metadata properties.

1.5.1.1. Code Property

Table 1.41. Code property description

ESPON MetadataNameCode
Name literalCode
Parent

Indicator Identification or Indicator Aggregation

Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
Description

Code of the indicator in the ESPON Indicators Classification. If the indicator already exists in the ESPON database (and thus is present in the classification), the value of this property should be taken from the ESPON Indicators classification documentation. Otherwise, a new code must be created.

The value of this property must be the same as at least one of the indicator code labels in the data part of the dataset. If this is not the case, the metadata will be invalid.

Data typeCharacter string with max length of 32 characters
Example(s)"pop_t_rtc", "ump_rt_rtp"
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.1.2. Name Property

Table 1.42. Name property description

ESPON MetadataNameName
Name literalName
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / condition

Mandatory

Multiplicity

1

Description

The name of the indicator. A short expression that reflects the meaning of the indicator and respects the style of the naming of the indicators used in the classification.

Data typeCharacter string with max length of 128 characters
Example(s)"Expenditures on dental services", "Gross Domestic Product (GDP)"
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations

Data originators should pay a lot of attention to naming the indicators in order to give the most precise expressions and to avoid duplicating names with already registered indicators or with other properties of an Indicator Identification element. An incorrect name can make much more complex the semantic search in the database.

For example, naming a new indicator as "Total expenditures on dental services per inhabitant in Euro in EU" is incorrect, because this expression contains a reference to the unit of measure ("Euro" and "per inhabitant"), to the spatial binding ("EU") and to the most generic scope ("Total"). The correct way is to name this indicator simply "Expenditures on dental services". Other properties of the metadata will make the necessary references to the units and spatial extent. Naming an indicator as "GDP in billions of Euros" or "GDP in PPS" is neither a correct way to proceed. Like in the previous example, the units of measure ("billions of Euros" or "PPS") should be specified separately. But the "GDP" acronym should be explained more carefully. A correct name for this indicator should be "Gross Domestic Product (GDP)".


1.5.1.3. Abstract Property

Table 1.43. Abstract property description

ESPON MetadataNameAbstract
Name literalAbstract
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / condition

Mandatory

Multiplicity

1

Description

The abstract of the indicator. This property must describe the indicator in a more extended way than it is done by the Name property. The abstract must not repeat only the name of the indicator, but propose more information about it, that is not given by the Name.

Data typeCharacter string without length restriction
Example(s)Data on total population in the specified statistical regions.
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
ObservationsThe Abstract should be formulated generically, so that it could be applied to any other indicator having the same name and code in another dataset. It must not mention the spatial or temporal extent or the measurement of the values. For example, instead of giving the abstract "The total population of Poland regions in 2010 in thousands of inhabitants according to the last population census", the data provider should generalize the description transforming it into something like "Data on total population in the specified statistical regions". No need to repeat the spatial unit, year, unit of measure and data origin references, that will be available at their dedicated fields.

1.5.2. Indicator Aggregation

An aggregation of indicators is a group of singular indicators described in Section 1.5.1. The aggregations are not associated with indicator values and act as wrappers for singular indicators with strong semantic links. Therefore, each aggregation is characterized by a Code, Name and an Abstract property. For aggregations, the names of these properties are prefixed with the word Aggregate: Aggregate Code, Aggregate Name and Aggregate Abstract respectively. Each of them describe the common properties of all the singular indicators in the group.

Each Indicator Aggregation must also refer to all of the Indicator Identification elements that compose the group.

1.5.2.1. Code Property of an Indicator Aggregation Element

Table 1.44. Code property description

ESPON MetadataNameCode
Name literalCode
Parent

Indicator Aggregation

Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity2... *
Description

References all the codes of the Indicator Identification elements that compose the aggregation. At least two Indicator Identification elements must exists in a valid aggregation (an aggregation of a single indicator does not make sense).

Data typeA list of codes of Indicator Identification elements
Example(s)-
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.3. Policy Property

Beginning from this property, all of the properties described below in this chapter belong to the IndicatorIdentification element of the metadata model.

Table 1.45. Policy property description

ESPON MetadataNamePolicy
Name literalPolicy
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / condition

Optional

Multiplicity

0... *

Description

The ESPON policy classification of the indicator. The value of this property must correspond to a policy code defined in the list of policy titles established by ESPON. Please see the Policies table for the entire classification.

Data typeCharacter string restricted to a set of values
Example(s)'EU2020_1', 'TA2020_2'
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations

Please see the Policies table for the values of this property.


1.5.4. Core Property

In conformity with the Core Database Strategy (CDS[10]), before the integration of any new indicator in the Database, it is classified according to its relevance for the CDS. The indicators marked as core ones represent the most precious data in the Database.

Table 1.46. Core property description

ESPON MetadataNameCore
Name literalCore
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
Description

Shows if this indicator belongs to the list of core indicators of the ESPON Database. The default value is false.

Data typeBoolean
Example(s)true or false
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.5. Methodology Property

The Indicator Identification element may define a Methodology property that can be shared with other indicators or with Source Reference elements.

Table 1.47. Methodology property description

ESPON MetadataNameMethodology
Name literalMethodology
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / conditionOptional
Multiplicity0... 1
Description

Please see the shared Methodology property.

Data typeThis is a composite property
Example(s)-
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.6. Theme Property

Table 1.48. Theme property description

ESPON MetadataNameTheme
Name literalTheme
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / condition

Mandatory

Multiplicity

1... *

Description

Theme(s) associated with the indicator. It must be a string value coming from the enumeration of themes composing the ESPON Thematic Classification. The full list of existing themes is described in the Appendix E of this document.

Data typeCharacter string restricted to a list of values
Example(s)"populationAndLivingConditions", "Population and living conditions"
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations

It is recommended to specify, if possible, more than one theme for an indicator, in order to improve thematic search in the database.

Please note that the list of themes is very different from the INSPIRE Topic Categories and from the thematic classification used during the first Phase of the project.


1.5.7. Keyword Property

Table 1.49. Keyword property description

ESPON MetadataNameKeyword
Name literalKeyword
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / condition

Mandatory

Multiplicity

1... *

Description

Please see the shared Keyword property.

Data typeThis is a composite property
Example(s)-
INSPIREReferencePart B 3
NameKeyword
Observations 

1.5.8. Temporal Extent Property

The Temporal Extent property at the Indicator Identification level lists all the temporal bindings characterizing the values of this indicator. Semantically, these bindings may exist as time periods or instances (moments in time). Please see the Temporal Extent for more details.

Table 1.50. Temporal Extent property description

ESPON MetadataNameTemporal Extent
Name literalTemporalExtent
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1... *
Description

Please see the Temporal Extent shared property description.

Data typeList of one or two dates or year values: [start, end]
Example(s)['2001-01-01'[, '2002-12-31']], [2001[, 2002]]
INSPIREReferencePart B 5.1
NameTemporal extent
Observations

Please see the Calendar Date Values Constraints for dates format.


1.5.9. Indicator Value Nature property

The values of indicators can result from a study where raw data is collected, can be produced by calculations applied on raw data or may result from analyzes, classifications and other methods of production. These methods can be summarized by a property that reflects the nature of an indicator. The nature of the idicator value is defined during the dataset integration process.

Table 1.51. Indicator Value Nature property description

ESPON MetadataNameNat Type
Name literalNatType
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
Description

The nature of the indicator value. This must be one of the literals defined in Appendix G.

Data typeCharacter string restricted to a list of values
Example(s)A, AS, RC
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10. Data Type property

Table 1.52. Data Type property description

ESPON MetadataNameData Type
Name literalDataType
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
Description

Type of data that is used to represent the values of the indicator.

A restricted list of data types is supported by ESPON 2013 Database. Each type of this list is characterized by its specific properties, so the structure of Data Type property depends on the type chosen.

This property is used to check the validity of the indicator values in the dataset.

Data typeThis is a composite property
Example(s)-
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.1. Type Identifier Property

Table 1.53. Type Identifier property description

ESPON MetadataNameType Identifier
Name literalTypeIdentifier
ParentData Type
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
DescriptionString identifier of the data type.
Data typeCharacter string restricted to a list of values
Example(s)"float", "boolean", "enum"
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations

This property can take the following values:

The values in this list may be used in upper or lower case characters.

Each of the Data Type element properties that depend on the Type Identifier value are detailed below.


1.5.10.2. Description Property

Table 1.54. Description property description

ESPON MetadataNameDescription
Name literalDescription
ParentData Type
Obligation / condition

Optional for all cases except when the Type Identifier property is set to other.

Multiplicity

1 if Type Identifier is other.

0... 1 otherwise.

DescriptionGives a verbose definition and/or comment of the type of data used to represent indicator values.
Data typeCharacter string without length restriction
Example(s)The value denotes the year when the country ratified the Convention on...
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.3. Numeric Data Types

Indicator values represented by numeric data (2, 3.574, 700.25, 10000 etc) can be classified as integer or float data. Numeric data is the most frequent way of data representation in the ESPON Database.

The integer data type is a numeric data type where indicator values are always represented by natural or negative numbers. An integer value cannot have a fractional or decimal component: -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3...

The float data type is a numeric data type where indicator values are represented by real numbers, with a fractional or a decimal part: -1.5, 2.34, 10.758... An integer can also be represented as a float: 1 = 1.0.

The data originator should carefully think about the type of the numeric representation of indicator values. In numerous cases, they can be represented as integers. The number of inhabitants with 1:1 scale is usually represented by positive integers (normally, an inhabitant cannot be cut into parts and stay alive to make part of the statistics): 1000, 10200 etc. A mean number of persons, for example for the "Fertility rate per woman" indicator, can be represented as a float: 1.3, 2.1, 3.5 etc. So, if it is clear that there cannot be at least one decimal indicator value, the Type Identifier should be set to integer. Otherwise it should be float.

Any numeric indicator data must be characterized by a unit of measure that describes this numeric data.

1.5.10.3.1. Unit of Measure Property

Table 1.55. Unit of Measure property description

ESPON MetadataNameUnit of Measure
Name literalUnitOfMeasure
ParentIndicator Identification
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
DescriptionUnit in which the values of the indicator are measured. This element cites the unit itself and, eventually, its scale of measure.
Data typeThis is a composite element
Example(s)-
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.3.1.1. Numerator Name Property

Table 1.56. Numerator Name property description

ESPON MetadataNameNumerator Name
Name literalNumeratorName
ParentUnit of Measure
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
Description

The name of the numerator of the unit of measure. The numerator is the first part of the name of a unit of measure. For example, for "kilometers per hour" the numerator is "kilometers", while "hour" is the denominator. Many units are composed of the numerator only, for example "euros", "inhabitants".

This field must always be specified, because any unit of measure has a numerator.

Data typeCharacter string with max length of 64 characters
Example(s)"inhabitants", "Euros", "km2"
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations

The name must be full (not shortened) and typed using only standard ASCII characters of latin and numeric character set. The powers must be typed as inline digits: "km2", "m3". The use of the multiplication sign "*" is optional: "kW*h" or "kWh".

If the unit of measure contains a standard SI scale multiplier (kilo-, mega-, etc), this multiplier should not be transformed into a Scale property value. Other indications of the scale ("thousands of...", "millions of...") must be excluded from the name: in this case the multiplier must be converted into a scale value.


1.5.10.3.1.2. Denominator Name Property

Table 1.57. Denominator Name property description

ESPON MetadataNameDenominator Name
Name literalDenominatorName
ParentUnit of Measure
Obligation / conditionOptional
Multiplicity0... 1
Description

The name to use in the denominator part of the fraction that describes the name of the unit of measure. For example, for "kilometers per hour" the denominator is "hour". The "per" preposition or the "/" sign should not be used in this field.

Many units of measure do not contain a denominator, for example "Euros", "inhabitants". In this case, this property must not be filled.

Data typeCharacter string with max length of 64 characters
Example(s)"inhabitants", "Euros", "km2"
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations

Please see the observations on the Numerator Name property.


1.5.10.3.1.3. Numerator Scale Property

Table 1.58. Numerator Scale property description

ESPON MetadataNameNumerator Scale
Name literalNumeratorScale
ParentUnit of Measure
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
Description

Integer value representing the right part of the scale multiplier of the value. For example, if the total population of a territory is measured in thousands of inhabitants, the name of the unit should be "inhabitants" and the numerator scale must be expressed by the value of 1000.

For units that are traditionally measured with a standard SI multiplier (km, kg), the prefix should be left in the name and the scale is set to default 1.

Data typeAn Integer representing a multiple of 10 in the range of {10-23... 1023}
Example(s)1, 10, 1000, 1000000, 1000000000
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.3.1.4. Denominator Scale Property

Table 1.59. Denominator Scale property description

ESPON MetadataNameDenominator Scale
Name literalDenominatorScale
ParentUnit of Measure
Obligation / conditionMandatory if the Denominator Name property is specified.
Multiplicity0... 1
Description

This scale value uses the same principle as the one of Numerator Scale. It corresponds to the scale of the denominator of the unit. For example, for the indicator "births per 100000 inhabitants" the value of this property is 100000.

Please see the explanation for the Numerator Scale property.

Data typeInteger in the range of {-23... 23}
Example(s)1, 10, 1000, 1000000, 1000000000
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.3.2. Ranking property

Numeric indicator values may semantically represent a ranking of statistical units according to some criteria. In this case, the values represent the positional indices of the statistical units in the ranking list and the sum of the values (or even other operations on their set) does not make sense. For such values, the Ranking property may be used, which is set to false by default.

Table 1.60. Ranking property description

ESPON MetadataNameRanking
Name literalRanking
ParentData Type
Obligation / conditionMandatory for integer and float data, does not exist for other data types.
Multiplicity1
Description

Shows if the indicator values represent a ranking of statistical units.

The default value is false.

Data typeBoolean
Example(s)true, false
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations

If the values of an indicator represent a ranking, there must not be duplicates in the list of values.


1.5.10.3.3. Min and Max Properties

A set of numeric values can be characterized by a range to which all the possible values of the indicator must belong. It can be the case when the indicator values correspond to academic marks, for example from 0 to 20. In such cases the minimum and the maximum values of the range must be specified in the metadata. This can be done using the Min and the Max properties of the numeric data types.

Table 1.61. Min property description

ESPON MetadataNameMin
Name literalMin
ParentNumeric Data Type
Obligation / conditionOptional
Multiplicity0... 1
Description

The minimum (inclusive) value that can take the indicator.

If this property is not specified, it is supposed that the min value of the indicator is not limited.

Data typeInteger or Float, but the same as declared by the Type Identifier value.
Example(s)-100, 1000, 2.5
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

Table 1.62. Max property description

ESPON MetadataNameMax
Name literalMax
ParentNumeric Data Type
Obligation / conditionOptional
Multiplicity0... 1
Description

The maximum (inclusive) value that can take the indicator.

If this property is not specified, it is supposed that the max value of the indicator is not limited.

Data typeInteger or Float, but the same as declared by the Type Identifier value.
Example(s)-100, 1000, 2.5
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.4. Text Data Types

Indicator values may be represented by textual data without any restrictions or definitions and not composing a fixed collection of invariable character strings. The only limitation to this type of values is the general restriction on character string values described in the Character Strings Values Constraints. If the string values of the indicator compose a fixed set of values, please use the enum data type.

The only metadata property of the text data type is a boolean value showing if the text values of the indicator can be used as identifiers.

1.5.10.4.1. Unique Property

Table 1.63. Unique property description

ESPON MetadataNameUnique
Name literalUnique
ParentData Type
Obligation / conditionMandatory for text data type, inexistent for other types
Multiplicity1
Description

Shows if the text values of the indicator can be used as unique identifiers for the respective "spatial unit - indicator - period" groups. The default value is false.

Data typeBoolean
Example(s)true, false
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.5. Enumerated Data Types

If the enumerated (enum) Type Identifier is specified, all the indicator values of this type must conform to the predefined list of possible and expected values described in the metadata. For example, an indicator shows an estimation of an economic activity, which is measured by the list of possible values: VERY HIGH, HIGH, MODERATE, LOW and VERY LOW. Each of the values in this list must be described using the Enum Value property of the Data Type element.

While the maximum number of possible values in an enumeration is not limited, the minimum number is 2. An enumeration having only one element does not make sense. If the enumeration consists of only two elements having opposite meanings, the boolean Data Type should be considered to describe the values.

Enumerated Data is characterized by a set of invariable values and by the possibility of these values to be compared between them.

[Important]

Please take into account the following constraints when defining an enumeration:

  • all the characters composing the possible values (example: LOW, HIGH) must be given in upper cases without any space character.

  • The Unit of Measure section must not follow the enumeration.

1.5.10.5.1. Ordered Property

Table 1.64. Ordered property description

ESPON MetadataNameOrdered
Name literalOrdered
ParentData Type
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
Description

Shows if the elements of the enumeration are ordered between them. This property is set to false by default. In an ordered enumeration, elements can be compared between them.

For an ordered enumeration, the list of Enum Values must begin with the lowest value and end with the highest. For example, for the enumeration cited in Section 1.5.10.5, the list must start with the VERY LOW value and end with the VERY HIGH one.

Data typeBoolean
Example(s)true, false
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.5.2. Enum Value Property

Table 1.65. Enum Value property description

ESPON MetadataNameEnum Value
Name literalEnumValue
ParentData Type
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity2... *
Description

Describes a value that an element of the enumeration can take.

In a list of enumerated values, all of the items must be unique (no duplicates accepted).

If the Enumerated Data is ordered, the list of elements must begin with the lowest value and end with the highest. For an unordered enumeration, the order of the values is not important.

There must be at least two values describing an enumeration. An enumeration of just one value does not make sense.

Data typeThis is a composite property
Example(s)-
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.5.2.1. Value Label Property

Table 1.66. Value Label property description

ESPON MetadataNameValue Label
Name literalValueLabel
ParentEnum Value
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
Description

Value that can take the indicator in the data part of the dataset. For example, for the enumeration cited in Section 1.5.10.5, there must be an Enum Value property specified for each element, where Value Label property takes the values VERY LOW, LOW, MODERATE, HIGH and VERY HIGH respectively.

Data typeCharacter string with max length of 32 characters
Example(s) "high", "moderate", "low"
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.5.2.2. Value Description Property

Table 1.67. Value Description property description

ESPON MetadataNameValue Description
Name literalValueDescription
ParentEnum Value
Obligation / conditionMandatory
Multiplicity1
Description

Describes or comments the Enum Value and/or the Value Label with which it is associated.

Data typeCharacter string without length restriction
Example(s) The activity with the index value higher than 100 according to the [...] evaluation formula.
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.6. Boolean Data Types

The boolean data type is considered as a usual couple of values (true or false) that can characterize the indicator. But it also can be seen as a special case of an ordered Enumerated Data having only two elements possible. The first element of such enumeration correspond to false or 0 value, while the second is true or 1. In fact, any string literals can be specified and used to express different meanings: No - Yes, Absent - Present, etc. If this is the case for the values of an indicator, the data provider should specify a custom boolean type.

For boolean data, the structure of the Data Type element is exactly the same as for enum one, with the following restrictions:

  • The Ordered property is always set to true.

  • The number of Enum Value items is always 2.

  • The first item in the Enum Values list corresponds to the false value of the boolean.

  • The second item in the Enum Values list corresponds to the true value of the boolean.

1.5.10.7. Flagged Data Types

The flagged data type is also a particular case of character string enumerations, where the meaning of the value is defined by the positions of the enumerated elements in a character string. For example, the indicator "Change in Net Migration by Main Components" is defined as follows.

There may be two possible quantitative characteristics of migrations phenomena: increasing ("I") and decreasing ("D"). In certain cases, it is not possible to characterize the phenomena, which is expressed by the literal "N". This list of values composes an enumeration of character values { 'I', 'D', 'N' }. The indicator has three dimensions: the net migration, the internal migration and the international one. By positioning the enumerated characters in a string, we can characterize the three dimensions of the indicator at the same time. By convention, we will consider that the first character corresponds to the net migration, the second to the internal and the third to the international migration. Thus, using this convention, the string 'IDI' means that the net and the international migration are increasing, while the internal is decreasing. 'DDD' means that the migration is decreasing on the three dimensions. 'INN' means that the net migration is increasing, but it is not possible to describe the internal and the international migration. If the values of an indicator follow the same principle, the flagged Data Type must be used.

In this case, the main part of the structure of the Data Type element is the same as for the enum data type. It is extended by the Position property, that represents a list describing the meaning of each position in a character string of flagged data. There must be at least two values in this list, otherwise the positions of the elements do not make sense.

Each label of the elements of the flagged enumeration must be represented by a single character, otherwise the combined values cannot be processed automatically without ambiguities.

1.5.10.7.1. Position Property

Table 1.68. Position property description

ESPON MetadataNamePositions
Name literalPositions
ParentData Type
Obligation / conditionMandatory for flagged data type, inexistent for other types.
Multiplicity2... *
Description

Describes the meaning of the position of an element inside a flagged character string.

The index of each value in the Position list correspond to the index of the respective flag position in the flagged character string.

There must be at least two elements in the Position list in order for the flagged data type to be valid.

Data typeCharacter string without length restriction
Example(s)["net migration", "internal migration", "international migration"]
INSPIREReferenceNo INSPIRE reference
Name-
Observations 

1.5.10.8. Other Data Types

The other data type is used when the type of the values of the indicator cannot be classified as one of the existing types or it is not possible to identify the data type. In this cases, the data originator must specify the mandatory Description property. The value of this property is represented by free text. If the data type can be defined, but it is not possible to do it using the existing means, the data originator must define the type using this property. If no definition can be made for the data type, the data originator must provide an explanation of the impossibility to give the data type definition.

1.5.11. Summary of the Indicator Identification Element

The Indicator Identification element can be summarized in the following UML diagram:

Figure 1.5. Indicator Identification element structure

Indicator Identification element structure